Birding 101: Song Sparrow vs. Fox Sparrow Made Easier


This Song Sparrow, photographed at Eugene, Oregon 13 February 2008, is representative of the birds found west of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington and in coastal British Columbia. Visiting birders are often confounded by these birds, which are slightly larger and much darker than the Song Sparrows found across most of North America. Note the conspicuous post-ocular stripe and how it flares towards the nape. Most of the auriculars are gray rather than filled in with reddish brown. (Photo by Dave Irons).

Only a handful of species show the range of geographic variation that one can see in Song and Fox Sparrows. You may have a good handle on the forms that occur close to where you live, but if you travel about the continent you may come face to face with individuals that leave you wondering which species you are looking at. This is particularly true in the Pacific Northwest, where the "coastal" forms of Song Sparrow are slightly larger and significantly darker than those found along the East Coast and across the interior of the U.S. and Canada. 

Sooty Fox Sparrows further complicate matters. Not only are they quite different in appearance than the more easterly Red Fox Sparrow, but for much of the year you will find them in the same brush patches with the equally  unfamiliar looking Song Sparrows of the Pacific Northwest. This article offers some key field marks to look for if you find yourself struggling to separate these species away from your home patch. The best part is, you don't have to have them side by side to sort them out.

A good starting point is bill color. Unlike Fox Sparrow, the bill color of Song Sparrow doesn't change much throughout the year. Their bills almost always look uniform in color. Both mandibles are a dark  and dusky grayish horn color. Only recently-fledged juveniles will show paler fleshy yellow tones on the bill. The bill color in Fox Sparrows is far more variable and changes seasonally. During the breeding season, their bills are generally paler, ranging from pale grayish to dull grayish-pink. Outside the breeding season (October-March), Fox Sparrows will a darker bill color, particularly the upper mandible, with varying amounts of corn yellow on the lower mandible and along the cutting edge of the base of the upper mandible. Birds seen from March-May will show a gradual reduction in the amount of yellow on the bill (Irons 2012). These seasonal transitions in bill color seem to hold true across all four Fox Sparrow groups (Red, Slate-colored, Thick-billed, and Sooty).

The next thing to look at is the face pattern. All subspecies of Song Sparrow have a well-defined  brown or reddish-brown post-ocular stripe that is surrounded by gray or buffy-gray and extends from the back of the eye towards the nape, where it generally flares slightly. In the West, there are three groups of Fox Sparrow subspecies. Sooty, Slate-colored, and Thick-billed Fox Sparrows all lack the strong face pattern that we associate with Song Sparrows and Red Fox Sparrows. Although Red Fox Sparrows have a strong gray and russet face pattern, the auricular patch is usually fairly solid reddish-brown, thus there is no clearly defined brown or reddish-brown post-ocular stripe. 


This bird and those in the next two photos are all Song Sparrows. Note how much paler these birds are compared to the Pacific Northwest form above. All three show conspicuous post-ocular stripes, mostly grayish auriculars, and virtually identical bill color. (All three photos by Robert Royse) 



This after hatch-year Red Fox Sparrow was photographed in June in Manitoba. Note the pinkish bill color with no yellow and how the auriculars are filled with mostly russet feathers. (Photo by Robert Royse).


This adult Sooty Fox Sparrow was photographed in Alaska in May. Note the amount of gray in the unpatterned face and the grayish-pink bill with no yellow. (Photo by Robert Royse)


This presumed Slate-colored Fox Sparrow was photographed in California during March. Like most birds in the Slate-colored, Thick-billed, and Sooty subspecies groups, this bird shows essentially no pattern in the face. Note the yellow on the lower mandible. By March the yellow starts to disappear and it will be gone entirely by June. (Photo by Robert Royse) 


This Red Fox Sparrow, photographed at South Padre Island, Cameron County, Texas 13 November 2011, shows a strong face pattern, but again the auriculars are filled in with reddish brown and there is no clearly defined post-ocular stripe. Note the rich corn-yellow base to the bill. This bill pattern is typical of late fall and mid-winter Fox Sparrows of all four subspecies groups. (Photo by Dave Irons) 


This Sooty Fox Sparrow was photographed in the Pacific Northwest during December. Sooty Fox Sparrows are highly variable in color and can look quite reddish in certain light conditions. They may show noticeable gray in the face like this bird, but don't show a contrasting pattern. Again, note the rich corn-yellow on the base of the bill, which is typical in mid-winter Fox Sparrows. (Photo by Glenn Bartley)

With a good view of the bill color and face pattern, you should be able to readily separate Fox and Song Sparrows, regardless of where you are in North America. By focusing on these two aspects, you can side-step the confusion that is introduced by all the geographic variation in color and you won't get waylaid by Song Sparrows that show a darker or more reddish-brown appearance. 

There are a couple of secondary field marks that may help you confirm that you've made the correct identification. First, the lower rumps and tails of Fox Sparrows are almost always noticeably more reddish than other aspects of the bird. In looking at the Fox Sparrows in the images above, even though the overall tone of these birds is quite variable, you might notice that the tails and lower rumps are slightly more reddish on all of these birds. If you look at the tails of the Song Sparrows, they tend to match pretty closely to the general color of the upperparts and don't contrast with the rest of the bird. The Song Sparrows are also somewhat streaked on the rump, while the Fox Sparrows show unstreaked rumps. 

Finally, the dark markings on the underparts of Fox Sparrows tend to be more crisp with lots of isolated triangles/chevrons and if you look closely at the streaking you can see that the streaks are actually rows of chevrons. Song Sparrows tend to have blurrier streaking, with very few isolated chevrons and the streaks don't appear to be made up of rows of chevrons. Below are sets of images of both Fox and Song Sparrows that illustrate this difference.


This Song Sparrow was photographed during March in Ohio. Note how the flanks streaks are solid with no obvious internal chevrons and there are almost no isolated chevrons on the underparts. (Photo by Robert Royse) 


Note the blurry contiguous flank streaks on this Pacific Northwest type Song Sparrow and the lack of obvious chevrons on the underparts. This bird was photographed in February. (Photo by Glenn Bartley)


This Song Sparrow, photographed during March in Ohio, shows a few isolated triangular markings on the lower breast, but they are more blurry, as are the flank streaks, which generally to be contiguous with no obvious chevrons within. (Photo by Robert Royse)


This Red Fox Sparrow was photographed on the breeding grounds in Manitoba during June. Note the lack of yellow on the grayish-pink bill, the solid reddish auriculars, and the crisp isolated chevrons and triangular russet markings below. Also note how the flank streaking is comprised of rows of chevrons. (Photo by Robert Royse) 


This Sooty Fox Sparrow was photographed during September. It is very heavily marked with individual chevrons underneath and doesn't really show much in the way of streaking. (Photo by Glenn Bartley). By early Fall, Fox Sparrows are already showing the yellow on the bill that is absent during the breeding season. 


This Thick-billed Fox Sparrow was photographed during May in California. Note all the isolated chevrons on the underparts and how the streak along the flanks are actually rows of spaced chevrons. (Photo by Robert Royse)

I'll conclude this photo essay with a bird (see photo below) that might cause a bit of a problem. It was photographed in Michigan during April by Allen Chartier. It shows a quite a bit of gray in the auriculars, which are bordered by russet above and below. It also has the suggestion of a post-ocular stripe, although it is thinner behind the eye and connects to the auriculars rather than dead-ending at the nape like it would on a Song Sparrow. Other clues include unstreaked rump and the tail and lower rump, which are considerably more rusty reddish than the rest of the bird. Finally, if you look closely at the bill, it is still showing some yellow on the lower mandible. We can't see much of the underparts, but otherwise the sum of the parts of this bird add up to Fox Sparrow.


Red Fox Sparrow (subspecies "P. i. iliaca") during April in Michigan (Photo by Allen Chartier)

I will continue to look for pairs of potentially confusing common birds as subject matter for this sort of article. If you have certain birds or groups of species that you wrestle with, feel free to let me know via a comment. We welcome your feedback about these articles and suggestions for future ID articles. 


I always learn from articles like this and the ones Greg Gillson posts on his web site. I’m very new and am trying to learn how to ID birds properly. I’m sure I make some mistakes but to me that’s part of learning.
One that is hard for me are the Cormorants. Went to the coast resently and boy they are hard to tell apart. They don’t always sit next to each other. That would make it a little easier. I know I don’t even have to mention Gulls. I’m working on that one too.
Keep the articles coming. I enjoy learning all I can.


It may just be my eyesight, but I swear the Song Sparrows we get right on the coast (Lincoln Co.) are even darker and less crisply patterned on the face than the PNW form you show above. To me their face and crown colors look dark reddish brown and dark gray, with back, wings, & tail a dark reddish brown with not-so-distinct streaking. I do see birds similar to your photos around Toledo. How about bringing your camera over here some winter day and staking out our feeders, and explain to me what I’m really seeing!


Great article Dave. Thanks. I appreciate the secondary field marks, which are very helpful sometimes also in separating look-alike goldfinches.


Another great article. I love the post-ocular stripe clue. And I agree with Rebecca… coast Song Sparrows look different from mine here in the coast range. They sound different, too! How about taking on Hutton’s Vireo vs. Ruby-crowned Kinglet… with something easier for old eyes than miniscule bill and feet differences. And I second the out-of-breeding season Cormorant suggestion… And all the LBJs… Endless possibilities for you, Dave. Keep the articles coming!


Great article! Nice to see some new posts on Bird Fellow.

One clarification: Do you mean, “We can’t see much of the underparts, but otherwise the sum of the parts of this bird add up to Fox Sparrow.”?


Dave – doing these comparisons are very helpful. I had looked at both birds over the last year to really try and nail down the differences. Both have appeared in my yard at the same time, luckily. After taking a little test before reading the captions, the last photo was the questionable one for me. Thanks for the details in identifying.


Thank you for this detailed information, this is always one species I wrestle with on my bid counts.


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Taobao?, Comme les vêtements femmes et d’autres choses, les gens en provenance de Chine et d’autres lieux sont assurés qu’ils peuvent obtenir les produits dont ils ont besoin et que vous voulez en toute simplicité. Tous les produits sont pour les personnes qui veulent obtenir des produits importés à des prix moins cher que son prix d’origine.? Taobao est un site où les acheteurs en ligne peuvent acheter des vêtements femmes et? La mode des bijoux? À des prix raisonnables. Les gens sont en mesure d’obtenir des produits plus branchés d’autres endroits en ligne à travers le site et le rendre possible d’acheter à un prix plus adapté à leurs besoins. La plupart des produits sont fabriqués à partir d’autres pays, en assurant que les produits sont de la meilleure qualité.? Pour plus d’informations sur les produits et services qu’offre le site,
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