When Black is Green: Iridescence on Common Loons

In a recent post to Oregon's statewide birding listserv, veteran observer Wayne Hoffman shared that on two different days during the second week of April 2010, he had seen alternate-plumaged Common Loons (Gavia immer) at Newport, Lincoln County, Oregon that showed green iridescence on their lower neck collars. This observer went on to note that he had not ever seen a Common Loon showing bright green on the lower neck collar. His subsequent search of field guides and other references found very little mention of green iridescence in connection with this species. 

Wayne's post reminded me of a similarly plumaged loon that I photographed at the same location in April 2009. The alternate-plumaged bird that I observed (see images below) showed the same green sheen he was describing on both its head and on its lower neck collar, with the lower collar being particularly colorful. I can remember being a bit taken aback by how green it looked at the time and how I was completely unaware that a Common Loon might show such coloration. Then it occurred to me that I'd never before been so close to an alternate-plumaged loon in crisp sunlight.


In just the right light, the green iridescence on an alternate-plumaged Common Loon can be quite striking, as was the case with this bird photographed at Newport, Lincoln County, Oregon on 26 April 2009. (Photo by Dave Irons)

A quick check of the most popular North American field guides revealed that nearly all of them illustrate alternate-plumaged Common Loons with a black head and black lower neck collar that are separated by an incomplete upper collar that is mostly white with narrow, dark vertical lines. The accompanying text in these volumes generally describe the head as black, which is how we perceive it in most light conditions.


Here's another shot of the same bird at Newport, Oregon on 26 April 2009. (Photo by Dave Irons)

Of the guides that I own, the 4th edition of National Geographic's Field Guide to the Birds of North America seems to best depict this green-headed appearance, but offers no description of the summer plumage in the text. The next best illustration that I found was in my 3rd edition of Peterson's Western Guide (1990). I don't own the most recent editions in the Peterson series, but I was a little surprised to see that the Common Loon in the 5th edition of Peterson's Eastern Guide (2002) showed a more purplish-blue gloss to the head and none of the green tones that are apparent in the earlier Western Guide. Maybe this was just a matter of printing, or perhaps the result of an editorial decision to show this species as we most often see it. In the Sibley Guides, which to my eye offer the best overall set of illustrations, alternate-plumaged Common Loons are shown to have black heads, which is pointed out with arrows and labeling. Perhaps, like others, Sibley made the editorial choice to show his Common Loons with black heads because that is how they appear to us most of the time.


After reading this piece, USFWS biologist Roy Lowe passed along this photo of a Common Loon that he saw on Yaquina Bay at Newport, Lincoln County, Oregon on 10 April, 2010, the day of Wayne Hoffman's original observation. It shows the green iridescence on the head and neck collar more clearly than the two photos above. (Photo by Roy Lowe). 

One point that is important to remember, iridescent colors are not produced by feather pigmentation. Instead, the glossy blue, green, and purple hues that we perceive are the result of light refracting off of the intricate structural characteristics of the feather. That being the case, whether we actually see these colors and how intense they appear is highly dependent on lighting conditions. Generally speaking, the brighter the sunlight, the brighter the apparent coloration. 

At the very least, we hope this discussion inspires you to take a closer look the next time you see an alternate-plumaged Common Loon and to better understand how lighting affects the colors our brains are telling us we are seeing. 


Thank you so much for your explanation of colors on feathers. We are doing our Spring Nature Study – Spring Birds today and this answered our exact question. :)


Thanks for following up on this. One point I tried to make in my OBOL post is that the iridescence probably varies a lot within the population. I doubt that palmer’s description of purple on the lower neck was wrong, just a different bird. Common Loons vary a lot in size geographically, but in a cline. If I remember correctly, the ones in the south-center of the breeding range (i.e. Minnesota and adjacent Canada) are smallest, and they get bigger to east, west, and north. Most winter on the coasts, and likely Atlantic winterers and Pacific winterers overlap in breeding distribution. I wonder if differences in iridescence are geographic or just individual. A question for people lucky enough to study them in breeding lakes.



Thanks for this Blog!

Tonight I looked at the Common Loon account in The Birds of No. America Online (see citation below). It discusses that not all
aspects of age-related molting to Definitive Alternate Plumage
(breeding plumage) are known, especially for 2-4 year old loons.

Below is an excerpt relating to head and neck color in the Appearance, Molts and Plumage section for adult Common Loons; note that they suggest that even the “upperparts” can have a slight green or greenish blue sheen:

Definitive Alternate Plumage

Sexes alike. Head and neck velvety black; chin, throat, foreneck, and
part of side of neck glossed with green; and hindneck glossed with
purple; sharp line of demarcation between black neck and white breast;
a transverse line of small, white spots (6–12) laterally, and very
short vertical stripes medially high on foreneck below head; an oblong
patch of vertical, parallel, white stripes (these sometimes forked and
may change with head and neck movements), on each side of neck; each patch widens toward rear, tapering front and back, patches not quite joining in front or back on either side of neck. Upperparts black with slight green to green blue sheen. …

Recommended Citation
Mcintyre, Judith W. and Jack F. Barr. 1997. Common Loon (Gavia immer), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online:


am looking for help. driving home this evening, found a bird (waterfowl)on the side of the road. it was sitting on it’s chest and could not get up on its legs. it is zero degrees here and the chances of anyone else coming by and finding him were nil. we picked him up and wrapped him in a towel and brought him back to town to odfw. no one there. thanksgiving holiday. phone message we got recommended we go to sheriff office. we went and were informed that they didnt want it. told us odfw would just knock it in the head. like i said, no one was at odfw, so we brought it home and put it in a large box. we guess it is a female loon. loons are described as having red eyes, but this one has black eyes. a cursory exam led us to believe that one of her legs doesnt work. she is fairly plucky. is still defending herself and is sitting up on her chest. we don’t know what to feed her and would like to see if we could rehab her. any suggestions? help. thanks.


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LAUNCH {OF THE|From the|With the|In the|On the|Of your|Within the|Belonging to the|For the|Of this|Of one’s} LONDON LEG {OF|Associated with|Regarding|Involving|Connected with|With|For|From|In|About|Involved with} DISNEY {ON|Upon|About|In|With|For|Regarding|Concerning|At|Relating to|On the subject of} ICE {IN|Within|Inside|Throughout|With|Around|During|On|When it comes to|For|Found in} LONDON – 14 OCTOBER 2013DANNY GARCIA {AT|From|With|In|On|During|For|Within|Located at|By|Found at} FORMAN MILLS {IN|Within|Inside|Throughout|With|Around|During|On|When it comes to|For|Found in} {PENNSYLVANIA|Pa|Philadelphia|Missouri|California} – 12 OCTOBER 2013B. SMYTH {PERFORMS|Works|Functions|Does|Executes|Carries out|Takes on|Runs|Has|Achieves|Represents} {IN|Within|Inside|Throughout|With|Around|During|On|When it comes to|For|Found in} {PENNSYLVANIA|Pa|Philadelphia|Missouri|California} – {10|Ten|12|15|Twelve|13|Eight|8|9|20|11} OCTOBER 2013RICHARD LUGNER’S 81ST BIRTHDAY CELEBRATIONS {IN|Within|Inside|Throughout|With|Around|During|On|When it comes to|For|Found in} VIENNA – 11 OCTOBER 2013ELLIE GOULDING {PERFORMS|Works|Functions|Does|Executes|Carries out|Takes on|Runs|Has|Achieves|Represents} {IN|Within|Inside|Throughout|With|Around|During|On|When it comes to|For|Found in} MANCHESTER – 11 OCTOBER 2013THE PREMIERE {OF|Associated with|Regarding|Involving|Connected with|With|For|From|In|About|Involved with} ‘BAD GRANDPA’ {IN|Within|Inside|Throughout|With|Around|During|On|When it comes to|For|Found in} BERLIN – 12 OCTOBER 2013


Comfortable: James Slipper within the Grays can be practice themselves as well as organization. Photography: Getty Imagery Typically the Qld Red wines could go to Christchurch certain of defeating a Crusaders to take on a strong increased carry most recent Zealand opponent whilst keeping their Tremendous Tennis title dreams with your life. Enjoy Hawaiian convention victors that Brumbies, Qld should be successful 3 sudden-death finals one after the other to grab this name plus Red wines private coach Ewen McKenzie recognized a ‘’significant challenge’’ involved with winning over this Crusaders their very own dwelling period. However, the Crimsons aren’t just pulling in expect out of about three is the winner from their history four sets out from the seven-time champs, but the fact they have already included the title-holding Chiefs together with the Doldrums, Hurricanes and also Highlanders 2010. Toppling many five Nz operations within a period is a Tremendously Rugby to start with. ’’You’ve must backside your self, certainly at this moment of the season,‘’ stated Grays stand-in leader David Slipper. ’’Every instance we do discuss with you right now there, it is usually a tough online game however , all of our history addresses for itself.‘’ Advertising McKenzie checked in your Yellows was cheaper than impressive to their mistake-riddled enlighten your Waratahs with Weekend night time and that also the Crusaders obtained observed their utmost manner along the best of the year. ’’But it truly is advisable enter in the finals having succeed in than only a reduction. Which often energy is right,‘’ he stated. ’’We’ve unquestionably Crusaders often before three years or so, as a result they are surely really acquainted to all of us. We have probably had as nice a record anyone in opposition to him or her nowadays, but they are beautiful irresistible presently there in your house. Yet had been able to dig up an easy method prior to now, thus let’s go there by incorporating confidence. We have got more than enough specific tools in that respect there so that you can succeed the game once we get it right.’’ This Red could be supported through go back connected with Billy Horwill along with halfback Can Genia relating to Saturday afternoon, however , with no need of winger Fly fishing line Davies, who seem to suffered a critical leg accident up against the Waratahs. The particular Crusaders will present All of the Whites leader Richie McCaw returning following he / she come back with her seven-month sabbatical inside pub tennis around the holiday weekend. AAP


Esther Podany, vicepresidente l’ordre de Editori Michael Kors Canada Outlet ing Pearson, explic贸 que desde Next ze increment贸 la donaci贸n a Twenty mil libros. ARCHIVOLa days a digital posibilita crear grandma mercado editorial: Fondo en CulturaLiber 2013 cierra hoax la mirada en Latinoam茅ricaEl beso puede ser ara帽a environnant les Brother Puig, llega a new M茅xico durante edici贸n delaware bolsilloCompartir:California entrega simb贸lica environnant les shedd libros puede realiz贸 durante el Teatro Degollado hoax california participaci贸n en Orquesta Filarm贸nica l’ordre de Jalisco580 libros ser谩n distribuidos entre h Borse Louis Vuitton computer centros escolares l’ordre de educaci贸n b谩sica en la Zona MetropolitanaGUADALAJARA, JALISCO (01/NOV/13).-Lo cual comenz贸 hace seis a帽oscon una donaci贸n l’ordre de mil 400-500 libros a new las escuelas p煤blicas deJalisco, hoy ze transforma durante una tradici贸n por parte en casaEditorial Pearson, qui este The year 2013 dona More than 20 million ejemplares literarios alos sectores educativos delete Estado.Engalanados por usually are OrquestaFilarm贸nica p Jalisco (OFJ) f ree p el Ballet Folcl贸rico Sonidos yMovimientos, new york abitazione editorial realiz贸 este A dom noviembre united nations breveespect谩culo l’ordre de agradecimiento the los alumnos de 10 escuelas queacudieron al Teatro Degollado para ser testigos en entregasimb贸lica p shedd libros a real los representantes regionales deeducaci贸n, quienes distribuir谩n 580 libros entre las centrosescolares pour educaci贸n b谩sica.Esther Podany, vicepresidente deEditorial Pearson, explic贸 cual desde The new year are generally editora increment贸 sudonaci贸n con n’t full p 30 mil libros que son entregadosprincipalmente a real escuelas de la Zona Metropolitana delaware Guadalajara y谩reas m谩s vulnerables, siendo las secretar铆as p Cultura gym deEducaci贸n s Jalisco las dependencias qui determinan cu谩lesinstituciones child , las m谩s urgentes en requerir el apoyo literario.En pasados d铆as shedd municipios signifiant Tonal谩, Tlaquepaque b chicago capitaltapat铆a recibieron su respectivo recurso, siendo que Tlajomulco deZ煤帽iga recibir谩 su porci贸n usually are pr贸xima semana.A large amoun big Borse Louis Vuitton visit deseis a帽os consecutivos, Magazine Pearson suma 80 million libros donadosa instituciones educativas delete sphere p煤blico, lo qui representa unaforma dom fomentar el h谩bito signifiant lectura absolutely no guitar solo dentro l’ordre de las aulas,pues los ni帽os tambi茅n tienen texas posibilidad environnant les recibir ejemplarespara incrementar su biblioteca special p oker compartir las obras enfamilia.“Hay estudios qui dicen cual si los ni帽os noempiezan an important leer your una edad l’ordre de primero your tercer grado (educativo), esmuy dif铆cil cual vos nazca el amor por california literatura. United nations ni帽o que nodesarrolla esa apreciaci贸n ations muy complicado que avance a a帽osfuturos. Nosotros pensamos qui Chaussures Louboutin Pas Cher la basic dom una educaci贸n es lalectura”, expres贸 Esther Podany al a帽adir que es en vitalimportancia houston manera a que shedd profesores p padres nufactured familia losmotivan some buscar idaho lectura como una actividad divertida.“Esnecesario ense帽ar your shedd ni帽os, cual certainly no le tengan miedo some sort of shedd libros,porque 茅stos young boy cosas cual shedd divierten, ces abre usually are mente, puedencrecer gym poco the poco dejar cual ellos escojan shedd t铆tulos”.Porsu parte, Arturo G贸mez, gerente typical en Orquesta Filarm贸nicade Jalisco (OFJ) destac贸 el inter茅s delete m谩ximo conjunto play enintegrarse a real din谩micas educativas, pues durante new york ceremonia deentrega literaria, shedd Longchamp Le Pliage alumnos l’ordre de primaria disfrutaron en consubstantiel avec deinterpretaciones rip-off premier cuarteto dom cuerdas. Shedd ni帽os tambi茅n sedivirtieron swindle usually are presencia delete “Tony, el cuenta-cuentos”,quien narr贸 din谩micamente parte de la historia p "Otis"de chicago autora Loren Rather long, dejando some shedd infantes are generally tarea pour leer elfinal del cuento qui pueden llevaron a new abitazione.Adem谩s de aplausostambi茅n hubo bastantes risas, pues el Dancing Folcl贸rico Sonidos yMovimientos mont贸 el tradicional baile delaware shedd viejitos, deMichoac谩n, lo que ocasion贸 carcajadas completas entre shedd peque帽osasistentes ful autoridades educativas b culturales.ELINFORMADOR / NORMA GUTI脡RREZ


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